Since Jesus offered perfect and permanent propitiation, it means what was damaged is now perfectly and permanently repaired.
The Mosaic covenant had a pattern for the tabernacle, worship, and sacrifices. The old sanctuary merely represented the better sanctuary in heaven.
Since the fall of Jerusalem to Babylon, the Jews in exile had been observing a series of fasts in memory of all that had happened to them.
Ten days after the Feast of Trumpets came Yom Kippur, which was a time of self-examination and repentance and forgiveness. centuries later, Christians would see Jesus as both sacrifice and high priest
even though Penal Substitutionary Atonement is an important concept, maybe even a foundational one, it is not the only important word on salvation, the gospel is so, so much more.